The effect of cold on the entire surface of the body, when its temperature drops below 35 °, causes general cooling of the body. The prolonged action of low temperatures can lead to freezing, while the functions of the body are inhibited, up to their complete extinction. However, one should not think that during freezing the body temperature reaches zero. A person dies when his body temperature drops to 17 – 25 °.
The body becomes less resistant to cooling during starvation, significant fatigue, intoxication, getting into cold water, as well as after injuries, blood loss, It is noticed that hypothermia occurs faster in old people and children. High humidity, strong wind, especially if a person is dressed in light, tight or wet clothes, contribute to cold injury. Continue reading
Skin is an important and complex organ that performs various functions. It protects the body from external influences (mechanical, chemical, physical). Healthy and intact skin creates a reliable barrier to pathogens. She participates in the processes of respiration, excretion, thermoregulation; its role in metabolism and other vital processes is great.
The outer epidermal layer, or epidermis (I), is isolated in the skin. the skin itself – the dermis (II) and the subcutaneous tissue lying below it – the hypodermis (III).
The epidermis is formed by several dozen layers of epithelial cells lying one above the other. Its thickness is not the same everywhere, the thickest epidermis – up to 1.5 millimeters – has the skin of the soles, palms, and the thinnest – 0.03 millimeters – the skin of the eyelids. Continue reading
Chronic bronchitis is the most common disease of the bronchopulmonary system, and at the same time the least studied, which is to some extent due to the presence of many factors predisposing to this ailment.
In the mechanism of development of bronchitis, many scientists assign a leading role to the infectious principle, since often chronic bronchitis is a consequence of untreated acute. However, most pulmonologists around the world consider smoking to be the main cause of the development of chronic bronchitis. It was established that inhalation of tobacco smoke causes an inflammatory process in the mucous membrane lining the bronchi from the inside, which leads to a violation of their structure and function. Continue reading