The first menstruation (it is called menarche) is an important event in the life of a girl. As a rule, it does not happen unexpectedly – older girlfriends inform. And under the influence of these conversations, some girls are even afraid of the onset of menstruation. Unfortunately, for some reason, many mothers are embarrassed to speak in detail with their daughters about this, limiting themselves only to hygienic advice.
But the girl needs to know that the onset of menstruation marks an important milestone in puberty. If there are menstruation, then pregnancy is also possible. Another thing is that the girl’s body is not yet sufficiently developed, and therefore pregnancy and childbirth can become an overwhelming test for her. Cases of very difficult births in girls aged 14-15 years are known to obstetricians …
The first menstruation usually begins at age 13 plus or minus one year. Oscillations in one direction or another can be somewhat larger. But, if menstruation began very early (before 10 years) or very late (after 15), one can suspect some kind of trouble, and the girl should be shown to the doctor.
The reasons for the delay of menstruation (menarche) are diverse: sometimes this is an individual feature of the body, sometimes the result of infectious diseases or emotional stresses transferred in early childhood, physical overload, as is the case, for example, in girls who are too intense and uncontrolled in gymnastics. It can be a sign of endocrine or other disorder.
Menstruation is the final stage of a complex chain of processes that rhythmically occur in the female body. Each such cycle fits into 26-30 days, sometimes it happens even shorter – 21 days and longer – 35 days.
What happens during the menstrual cycle, then. is there from the first day of one to the first day of the next menstruation?
The cycle is divided into two phases. The main event of the first is the maturation of the egg and its exit from the ovary; this period is characterized by activity in the body of special hormones – estrogen; in the second phase, another hormone, progesterone, becomes dominant. Under their influence, changes occur in all hormone-dependent organs: the uterus, fallopian tubes, and vagina. mammary glands. But most of all, the mucous membrane lining the uterine cavity changes. Her blood supply increases, she swells, becomes loose.
These changes are designed to ensure that in the event of pregnancy, a fertilized egg, which by this time, advancing along the tube. enters the uterus, could attach itself securely and begin to develop. If fertilization has not occurred, the swollen mucosa is rejected along with the unfertilized egg. This is menstrual bleeding.
The rhythmic menstrual cycle for many is not established immediately, but after about six months, a year. Before this, menstruation can occur more often, and less often, be very scarce, then vice versa, plentiful.
On the eve of menstruation, girls often complain of heaviness in the lower abdomen, mild headache, and weakness. These are natural phenomena, and they should not cause concern. By the way, some girls in the days of menstruation are very irritable, touchy, their mood spoils. Such reactions must be learned to overcome, otherwise it will be difficult for the most and unpleasant to others.
During menstruation, mental and physical performance does not decrease, and the girl can do all her usual activities without changing her usual routine. You can do morning exercises, refraining only from exercises associated with large overloads. Running, cycling, skiing, skating, swimming are contraindicated, as this can lengthen the duration of menstruation and increase blood loss. Swimming is also prohibited due to the possible cooling and the risk of infection entering the uterine cavity, since there is no natural mucous plug that usually closes the cervical canal during menstruation. These days you don’t have to take a bath.
From hygienic procedures, it is obligatory to wash two or three times a day under the current stream of water – from a jug or under a shower, a shared shower if possible every day and, at least, at least once a week. It is necessary to use special gaskets or cotton, change panties daily.
Menstruation lasts an average of 3 to 5 days, while not so much blood is lost – from 50 to 100 milliliters. If its duration is longer, and blood loss is stronger, if the girl experiences a sharp headache, cramping abdominal pain, severe weakness, you should definitely contact the pediatric gynecology office or the obstetrician-gynecologist of the antenatal clinic.
I want to warn my parents: a teenage girl still cannot distinguish what is natural, normal in these new phenomena for her, and what signals a bad situation. The formation of her menstrual cycle must be carefully monitored. First of all, this, of course, is the mother’s business. If the doctor offers treatment, you can not refuse. Indeed, the future motherhood of a daughter and her conjugal happiness may depend on whether measures will be taken or not in a timely manner.