Spasm of the bronchi is accompanied, as a rule, by shortness of breath, shortness of breath. A person is unable to clear his throat and release his lungs from sputum. This is primarily due to a sharp narrowing of the bronchi and a violation of their patency. The combination of these symptoms, or, as experts say, bronchospastic syndrome, is often observed with bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema.
Such patients should carefully follow the doctor’s prescription. In addition to antibiotics, expectorants, he usually recommends taking bronchodilator drugs to prevent and relieve bronchospasm. Which of them will be prescribed by the doctor. depends on whether bronchospasm is associated with hypersensitivity to certain allergens, or with congenital altered reactivity of adrenoreceptors of smooth muscles of the bronchi, or with insufficient activity in the body of certain enzymes or other biochemical systems. Especially often provoke bronchospastic syndrome contact with allergens, exposure to cold air, physical activity.
Clinicians have at their disposal tools that prevent the release of biologically active substances that are usually formed in the body during allergic reactions and cause spasm of the muscles of the bronchi. These drugs are usually used prophylactically. There are drugs that stimulate adrenergic receptors, which in turn causes relaxation of the smooth muscles of the bronchi. They are prescribed not only for prevention, but also for stopping the already developed bronchospasm,
And finally, glucocorticoids are used in the treatment complex for bronchospastic syndrome, which contribute to a decrease in the responsiveness of the smooth muscles of the bronchi to allergic factors. As you can see, each group of drugs has its own direction of action. And therefore, a big mistake is made by those who take this or that drug on the advice of friends and acquaintances. Self-medication, as a rule, not only does not bring the patient relief, but can also worsen the condition, cause serious complications. Treatment should be prescribed by a specialist, taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient and the nature of his disease.
In recent years, along with tablets, suppositories and ampoules, metered aerosols of bronchodilator drugs (pocket inhalers) have become widespread.
It is very valuable that the drug, administered by inhalation, enters directly into the bronchi and lungs. In this regard, it became possible to create the necessary therapeutic concentrations of the drug directly in the respiratory tract, and not in the blood, which minimizes adverse reactions from other organs and systems of the body. And one more positive property of aerosols is that a small and small effect is required to achieve a preventive and therapeutic effect dose of the drug. In addition, aerosol flows uniformly from pocket inhalers, which ensures dosage accuracy.
At the same time, the simplicity and convenience of using a pocket inhaler / 1 have negative consequences, Us. doctors, can not help but worry about the danger of widespread, and sometimes uncontrolled use of active bronchodilators. Some patients, neglecting the advice of a doctor, use an inhaler more often than he recommended. And this leads to an overdose of the drug, which causes severe adverse reactions. Therefore, we would like to draw attention to what should be the tactics of the patient in the event of an attack of suffocation.
The developed attack should be immediately eliminated. If this is not done immediately, after a spasm, the process of mucus formation intensifies, which further disturbs the patency of the bronchi. They are tightly clogged with viscous sputum. It is because of this that it is sometimes so difficult to stop a prolonged attack of bronchial asthma in a patient who has not taken the medicine in a timely manner. In such cases, you have to seek emergency medical care. But besides the fact that the medicine must be taken quickly, at the very beginning of the attack. it is equally important to do it right.
Before starting inhalation, shake the balloon, bring the nebulizer to your mouth at a distance of 2 – 3 centimeters, exhale completely and at the same time, while pressing the exhaust valve, inhale the aerosol vigorously through the mouth. After you inhale the medicine, it is necessary to hold the exhale as long as possible. Then the smallest particles of aerosol will have time to settle on the mucous membrane of the bronchi and fully show their bronchodilating effect. As a rule, 20-30 seconds after inhalation it becomes easier to breathe. After a minute or two, inhale the medicine from the inhaler again.
The dose of the drug introduced into the body in two breaths, provides the maximum in strength and duration (approximately 6 – 8 hours) bronchodilator effect.
Numerous clinical observations show that if you inhale the aerosol more than two times, the effectiveness of the drug will not increase, but the threat of its side effects will increase. The side effect of bronchodilator drugs is indicated by increased heart rate, the appearance of arrhythmias, dry mouth, and trembling hands.