The second trimester of pregnancy, that is, its fourth, fifth, sixth months, in a healthy woman, as a rule, proceeds calmly. The first period of physical and psychological adaptation has passed, the reactions of the nervous system have been balanced, the nausea that worries some women at the beginning of pregnancy has disappeared, and appetite has improved. In a word, the body has adapted to a new state.
It is still possible to work at the usual pace, almost without changing the lifestyle. If there are no diseases and complications of pregnancy, physical activity is not only not contraindicated, but even necessary. Those who are accustomed to doing exercises in the morning can not interrupt classes – you just need to, as in the first trimester, exclude jumps, jumps, sharp turns.
In the antenatal clinic, they will also recommend a special gymnastics complex. It is useful for all women whose pregnancy is proceeding normally, as it helps to strengthen the muscles of the abdominal press, pelvic floor, improves joint mobility, and prevents sagging abdomen. However, do not be too zealous. If you have been involved in gymnastics before, you can do exercises for 20 to 25 minutes, if you haven’t done it, no more than 15 minutes.
Another prerequisite is constant medical supervision. Depending on the features of the course of pregnancy and its duration, the doctor of the antenatal clinic doses the load, recommends excluding some exercises from the complex, including others.
Walking is very helpful. You can walk for up to two hours in a row, with stops for rest (stand, sit down). Try to organize your day so that there is time for an additional, at least half-hour, walk before bedtime.
Movements in the fresh air improve the supply of oxygen to the fetus, which is so necessary for its development. There are other, simple and affordable measures that you can take to improve the conditions of the prenatal existence of the unborn baby, to prevent complications of pregnancy and childbirth.
These include, in particular, careful hygiene. Daily shower, improving skin respiration, provides a more intensive allocation of metabolic products from the body. Washing the breast with cool water, air baths strengthen the skin of the nipples, which helps to prevent the appearance of cracks in the nipples and the development of mastitis.
Of great importance is nutrition. Special restrictions during this period are not required, but it is necessary to take into account the increased need of the body for proteins and vitamins. The daily diet should be meat or fish, dairy products, especially cottage cheese, eggs.
Necessary and vegetables, fruits, herbs – suppliers of minerals and vitamins. The need for vitamin C, for example, during pregnancy increases and 2 to 3 times. This vitamin, among other functions, plays an important role in the proper development of the placenta, and the well-being of the fetus now completely depends on its condition: after all, it receives nutrients through the placenta, breathes with it …
The placenta in the second trimester is constantly increasing, at the same time there is an increased growth of the fetus, its organs are being formed, and the mother’s body is obliged to provide new needs for the unborn child. In this regard, the functions of the endocrine organs are restructured. Parathyroid glands producing parathyroid hormone begin to function intensely. It promotes the absorption of calcium, which is now urgently needed to build fetal bones. In maternal blood, the level of progesterone, inhibiting the contractile function of the uterus, rises. The need for insulin is increasing, because this hormone stimulates metabolic processes, is an important regulator of the nutrition of cells and body tissues.
With a normal pregnancy in the second trimester, the release of insulin increases. It is during this period that latent diabetes can occur, since the inferior pancreas cannot cope with the increased load.
The risk of developing diabetes is increased in women whose parents or other blood relatives had diabetes. Risk factors also include previous birth by a large fetus (more than 4,500 grams). The first signs of this disease are increased thirst, increased urine output, and sometimes itchy skin.
At the slightest suspicion of diabetes, an urgent need to contact a antenatal clinic where necessary studies will be carried out. If the diagnosis is confirmed, treatment is immediately prescribed, and it must be taken very seriously. Some women, trusting good health, unfortunately, refuse to inject insulin, but meanwhile they are vital for the mother and child.
In the second trimester, the endocrine glands of the fetus begin to function, and he already actively produces hormones, so it is very important that the correct ratio between the endocrine systems of the mother and the fetus is established.
For an unborn child, not only a deficiency, but also an excess of maternal hormones can be harmful, because in the latter case, the function of its endocrine glands is inhibited.