A premature baby is considered to be a child born before the 38th week of pregnancy, having a body weight of less than 2500 grams, a body length of less than 45 centimeters.
The viability of a premature baby depends not only on body weight and term of birth, but also on how the pregnancy of the mother proceeded.
A premature baby is born more weakened if the mother suffers from cardiovascular, gynecological, endocrine, kidney diseases, has suffered infections during pregnancy, smoked, drank alcohol.
The rate of preterm birth among women smokers is twice as high as among non-smokers. Smoking causes oxygen starvation of the fetus, slows its growth in such women, a premature baby can be born.
The first days of life are a critical period for a premature baby. As a rule, special conditions are required for a premature baby and will be transferred to the hospital from the maternity hospital. But now the child has matured, and he can be taken home. Now it all depends on caring for him!
It is clear that a premature baby is more susceptible to any disease than babies born on time. Therefore, it is immediately necessary to protect the baby from contact with adults or children who have at least a hint of cough, runny nose, sore throat.
The highest requirements are imposed on the cleanliness of the room – be sure to clean using a wet method, since dust is often the carrier of staphylococcus that has settled on it; Use a vacuum cleaner more often, try to remove excess furniture, curtains, curtains, which absorb dust from the room.
Do not cool or overheat!
One of the features of a premature baby is the imperfection of thermoregulation mechanisms, such children are very sensitive to both cooling and overheating. Therefore, in the hospitals of the weakest, most premature babies, they are nursed in special couves where constant temperature and humidity are maintained.
By the time of discharge, thermoregulation is usually getting better, but still imperfect. The most suitable room temperature for the child is plus 20 – 22 °. Do not be afraid of airing – it is necessary! In summer, you can keep the window open almost all the time; in winter, ventilate the room at least three times a day for 10 – 15 minutes. The child at this time must be taken out of the room.
Gradually accustom the child to a change in temperature. Bathe your baby every day, preferably at the same hours – this is also a tempering procedure. At first, the water should be warm enough (37 °); by the end of the first half of the year, its temperature should be reduced to 36 °, and when the child is six months old – to 35 °. Walks are also needed. If a premature baby was discharged from the hospital in May – August, it can be taken out the next day for 15 to 20 minutes, and every day increasing the duration of the walk, bring it within a week and a half to two hours 3-4 times day.
In winter, you can walk at a temperature not lower than -10 °, on calm days, but provided that the body weight of the child has reached 2800 – 3000 grams. Lengthen the duration of a walk in the winter carefully, gradually: starting at 15 minutes, walk every day for 5 to 10 minutes more, but no more than an hour, 2 to 3 times a day.
In spring and autumn, when the temperature outside is above 0 ° and there is no wind, walks can begin if the child’s body weight is more than 2500 grams.
How to feed?
Of course, the best food for a premature baby is mother’s milk, it provides the growing body not only with good nutrition, but also with protective substances, enzymes, hormones, urgently needed in this situation. But the trouble is that after premature birth, some women have hypogalactia – insufficient milk production. We must try to strengthen it. But if milk is still not enough, you have to transfer the child to mixed or artificial feeding.
You can give the premature baby a mixture of “Robolact”, specially designed for weakened and premature babies. Acidophilic mixture “Baby”, a dry milk mixture of the same name, the mixture “Baby”, “Detolact”, “Linolak” are quite full-fledged.
To replenish the diet of a premature baby with vitamins and mineral salts, from three weeks to a month, start giving him fruit and vegetable juices (apple, lemon, carrot, blackcurrant). The first portions of juice are 3-4 drops. Every day, add a few drops and gradually bring the amount of juice to 30 – 50 milliliters.
From 2 to 3 months, fruit puree should also be given – from a quarter of a teaspoon to one or two spoons 3 to 5 times a day.
Feeding a premature baby is recommended from 4 months, and as a first feeding, vegetable puree is preferable. If a premature baby does not have a tendency to allergic diathesis, add the yolk of a hard-boiled egg, mashed in a small amount of milk, in mashed potatoes. First, put the yolk completely crumbs, then 1/8, then 1/4 and only gradually bring to half.