First aid for hypothermia
The effect of cold on the entire surface of the body, when its temperature drops below 35 °, causes general cooling of the body. The prolonged action of low temperatures can lead to freezing, while the functions of the body are inhibited, up to their complete extinction. However, one should not think that during freezing the body temperature reaches zero. A person dies when his body temperature drops to 17 – 25 °.
The body becomes less resistant to cooling during starvation, significant fatigue, intoxication, getting into cold water, as well as after injuries, blood loss, It is noticed that hypothermia occurs faster in old people and children. High humidity, strong wind, especially if a person is dressed in light, tight or wet clothes, contribute to cold injury.
The onset of general cooling has characteristic signs – agitation, chills, blueness of the lips, pallor and cooling of the skin, “goose bumps”, shortness of breath, increased heart rate. Then fatigue, stiffness, drowsiness, indifference, general weakness appear, a person loses the ability to move independently. If cooling continues, then a fainting state occurs, the victim loses consciousness, his breathing and heart may stop. A person cools especially quickly after falling into cold water. For example, at a water temperature of plus 15 ° he can survive no more than 6 hours.
GIVING FIRST AID, FIRST OF ALL, TAKE THE SUGGESTED IN THE BLOWLESS PLACE, AND MORE BETTER IN THE ROOM WITH A ROOM TEMPERATURE AND WELL COSE A BLANKET, DRESS. If the clothes are wet, be sure to remove them and replace them with dry ones. Provide rest to the victim, do not allow to move.
It is very important to control your pulse and breathing. If breathing has stopped, start artificial respiration immediately.
WHEN A CONSCIOUSNESS IS CONSCIOUS, IT SHOULD BE DRINKED WITH HOT SWEET TEA, COFFEE OR MILK. DO NOT GIVE ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES IN ANY CASE!
Attempts to quickly warm the victim (wrapping hot water bottles, hot showers, immersion in a warm bath, intensive rubbing) can be fatal. In this case, first of all, the surface covers are warmed up, and the warming of deeper layers of tissue is very slow. The resulting temperature difference in the tissues prevents the restoration of blood flow, and the surface integument, without receiving nutrition, dies — tissue necrosis (necrosis) develops. In addition, with rapid warming, red blood is redistributed from the peripheral parts of the body to the central zone, which has a higher temperature. Further cooling can lead to impaired activity of the cardiovascular system.
Warming should go from the center to the periphery, that is, due to the heat brought by the blood flow. This is achieved with a gradual general warming of the body, which contributes to the restoration of impaired blood circulation in the tissues.
Local tissue damage as a result of local exposure to cold is called frostbite. It can occur with prolonged exposure to wind, if a person is in the cold in tight wet shoes or for a long time remains stationary. Most often, fingers, feet, nose, cheeks and ears are frostbite. At first, a person feels a feeling of cold, then numbness (without pain), and later all sensitivity in the frostbitten parts of the body disappears.
IN DEEP EXTENSIVE FREEZING, THE DAMAGED SITES OF THE BODY acquire a white or gray color; when felt, they are soft and painful. After some time, bubbles form, filled with a clear or white liquid (these are I and II degree of frostbite). The victim’s body temperature rises, chills, malaise.
FOR FIRST AID, IT IS NECESSARY TO CARRY IT INTO A WARM ROOM, REMOVE THE CLOSE FOOTWEAR ON THE FROZEN AREAS OF THE BODY TO APPLY HEAT-INSULATING BANDAGES (WOOL-MARSEILLA, WOOL. THEY SHOULD CLOSE ONLY AREA WITH EXPRESSED SKIN MALITING. The victim should be given a hot drink (not alcohol!). DAMAGED SITES OF THE BODY CANNOT BE LUBRICATED WITH FAT OR OILS, WRINK THEM WITH SNOW – THIS COMPLETES THE COOLING. MAY INJURY SKIN.
FOR DEEP EXTENSIVE FREEZING, THE COOLED BODIES OF THE BODY ARE NON-SENSITIVE, THEY ARE SOLID, FROZEN, BROKEN. The fabric dies and quickly blackens. IN SUCH CASES, THE “EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE” MUST BE URGENTLY CALLED, AND BEFORE YOUR DOCTOR CONTROL THE PULSE AND RESPIRATION. If the victim faints, lay him on his side while holding his breath, perform artificial ventilation of the lungs.
When frostbite of hands or feet is combined with general cooling of the body, first of all, it is necessary to take all measures for the gradual general warming of the victim.